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2012

Iran – Cross-Sectional Analysis ($)

Exposure of Iranian emergency medical technicians to workplace violence: A cross-sectional analysis (Emerg Med Austral): Emergency medical technicians (EMTs) in Iran experience concerning levels of workplace violence, although until now there has been no investigation of this phenomenon. The objectives of the present study were to describe the exposure of Iranian EMTs to workplace violence and to identify the importance of related factors from their viewpoint.(2012, Vol. 24, Iss. 1, pgs. 105-110.)

Iraq – Time-Cohort/Trauma Audit (Free)

Prehospital trauma care reduces mortality. Ten-year results from a time-cohort and trauma audit study in Iraq. (SJTREM): Blunt implementation of Western trauma system models is not feasible in low-resource communities with long prehospital transit times. The aims of the study were to evaluate to which extent a low-cost prehospital trauma system reduces trauma deaths where prehospital transit times are long, and to identify specific life support interventions that contributed to survival. (2012, Feb. 3, Online First)

Germany – Retrospective Study ($)

Comparison of helicopter and ground Emergency Medical Service: A retrospective analysis of a German rescue helicopter base (Tech Health Care): In consideration of rising cost pressure in the German health care system, the usefulness of helicopter emergency medical service (HEMS) in terms of time- and cost-effectiveness is controversially discussed. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether HEMS is associated with significantly decreased arrival and transportation times compared to ground EMS. (2012, Feb. Vol. 20, Iss. 1, pgs. 46-50)

EMS Financing – Special Contribution ($)

An Economic Toolkit for Identifying the Cost of Emergency Medical Services (EMS) Systems: Detailed Methodology of the EMS Cost Analysis Project (EMSCAP) (Acad Emerg Med): Calculating the cost of an emergency medical services (EMS) system using a standardized method is important for determining the value of EMS. This article describes the development of a methodology for calculating the cost of an EMS system to its community. (2012, Jan. 30, Online First)

Global Health – Original Research ($)

Trauma and Burn Education: A Global Survey (World J Surgery): The World Health Assembly recently adopted a resolution to urge improved competency in the provision of injury care through medical education. This survey sought to investigate trauma education experience and competency among final year medical students worldwide. (2012, Jan. 20, Online First)

Norway – Original Research (Free)

The shootings in Oslo and Utøya island July 22, 2011: Lessons for the International EMS community (Scand J Trauma): Although all major incidents are unique they all have common elements. The incidents in July in Norway can be usefully categorised to analyse the challenges faced by the regional EMS system. (2012 Vol. 20, Iss. 4, Provisional)

Health Diplomacy – Review ($)

Dignitary medicine: adapting prehospital, preventive, tactical and travel medicine to new populations. (Am J Emerg Med):Dignitary Protection Medicine (DPM) is a new area of medical expertise that incorporates elements of virtually all medical and surgical specialties, drawing heavily from travel, tactical and expedition medicine. The fundamentals of DPM stem from the experiences of White House, State Department and other physicians who have traveled extensively with dignitaries. Furthermore, increased international travel of business executives and political dignitaries has mandated a need for proficiency in this realm. We sought to define the requisite knowledge base and skill sets that form the foundation of this new area of specialization. (5 Jan 2012; Article in Press)

Documentary“Paramedico” – Around the World in an Ambulance

(Benjamin Gilmour): A film about paramedics, by a paramedic. Award-winning filmmaker Benjamin Gilmour takes us into the secret lives of four paramedics in four diverse locations in the world; Mexico, Pakistan, Hawaii and Venice, promising to give us an entertaining, shocking and funny film. Gilmour’s unique access has allowed him to unmask the ‘hero’, and reveal the quirky and wild world of paramedics behind the scenes in his new book Paramedico” – Around the World by Ambulance. This film, in conjunction with the book, will bring his characters to life on screen.

2011

Sweden – Original Research (Free)

Swedish emergency department triage and interventions for improved patient flows: a national update. (Scand J Trauma): In Scandinavia, emergency department triage and patient flow processes, are under development. In Sweden, the triage development has resulted in two new triage scales, the Adaptive Process Triage and the Medical Emergency Triage and Treatment System. Both these scales have logistic components, aiming to improve patient flows. The aim of this study was to report the development and current status of emergency department triage and patient flow processes in Sweden. (2011 Vol. 19, Iss. 72, Online)

Franco-German – Original Research (Free)

A consensus-based template for documenting and reporting in physician-staffed pre-hospital services. (Scand J Trauma): Physician-staffed pre-hospital units are employed in many Western emergency medical systems (EMS). Although these services usually integrate well within their EMS, little is known about the quality of care delivered, the precision of dispatch, and whether the services deliver a higher quality of care to pre-hospital patients. There is no current data set collected to document the activity of physician pre-hospital activity which makes shared research efforts difficult. The aim of this study was to develop a core data set for routine documentation and reporting in physician-staffed pre-hospital services in Europe. (2011 Vol. 19, Iss. 71, Online)

Germany – Retrospective Study ($)

Incidents, accidents and fatalities in 40 years of German helicopter emergency medical system operations (Eur J Anaesth): Currently, approximately 100 000 helicopter emergency medical service (HEMS) missions for patients are undertaken in Germany each year. Compared to the early years, risk has reduced significantly, but is still higher than commercial aviation or other airborne operations. The aim of the present study was to evaluate helicopter accidents and fatalities related to HEMS operations. (Nov. 2011 Vol. 28, Iss. 11, pgs. 766-773)

China – Review ($)

Current state and future perspectives of trauma care system in mainland China. (Injury): To investigate the current state of trauma care in mainland China, and to propose possible future suggestions for the development of the trauma care system in mainland China. (Sept 2011 Vol. 42, Iss. 9, pgs. 874-878)

Iran – Nat’l Cross-Sectional ($)

Pre-hospital trauma care resources for road traffic injuries in a middle-income country—A province based study on need and access in Iran. (Injury): Access to pre-hospital trauma care can help minimize many of traffic related mortality and morbidity in low- and middle-income countries with high rate of traffic deaths such as Iran. The aim of this study was to assess if the distribution of pre-hospital trauma care facilities reflect the burden of road traffic injury and mortality in different provinces in Iran. (Sept 2011 Vol. 42, Iss. 9, pgs. 879-884)

ALS vs. BLS – Meta-Analysis ($)

Advanced life support versus basic life support in the pre-hospital setting: a meta-analysis. (Resuscitation): The scientific evidence of a beneficial effect of ALS in pre-hospital treatment in trauma patients or patients with any acute illness is scarce. The objective of this systematic review of controlled studies was to examine whether ALS, as opposed to BLS, increases patient survival in pre-hospital treatment and if so, to identify the patient groups that gain benefit. (Sept 2011 Vol. 82, Iss. 9, pgs. 1130-1137)

Technology – Poverty Matters Blog (Free)

Could donkey ambulances save lives in poor countries? (The Guardian UK): Three-quarters of medical devices donated to poor countries are unsuitable. Experts gathered in London to find appropriate medical devices for the developing world. (8 Sept 2011)

Global Health – Systematic Review ($)

Global Health: Injuries & Violence. (Infect Dis Clin North Am): This article considers how injury and violence relate to global health, using the most recent global burden of disease data and selected reviews of key articles and databases in the field… In doing so, the article serves as a call to action to increase research and prevention efforts at national global levels. (Sept 2011. Vol. 25, Iss. 3, pgs. 658–668)

System Development – Editorial ($)

Measuring Emergency Care Systems – the Path Forward. (Ann Emerg Med): Editorial comments. (Sept 2011. Vol. 58, Iss. 3, pgs. 267-269)

Nigeria – Comprehensive Review ($)

Epidemiology of injuries in Nigeria—A systematic review of mortality and etiology. (Prehosp Disaster Med):Access to pre-hospital trauma care can help minimize many of traffic related mortality and morbidity in low- and middle-income countries with high rate of traffic deaths such as Iran. The aim of this study was to assess if the distribution of pre-hospital trauma care facilities reflect the burden of road traffic injury and mortality in different provinces in Iran. (Aug 2011. Vol. 26, Iss. 4, pgs. 293-298)

Australia – Original Research ($)

First aid harm minimization for victims of road trauma: A population study. (Prehosp Disaster Med):Access to pre-hospital trauma care can help minimize many of traffic related mortality and morbidity in low- and middle-income countries with high rate of traffic deaths such as Iran. The aim of this study was to assess if the distribution of pre-hospital trauma care facilities reflect the burden of road traffic injury and mortality in different provinces in Iran. (Aug. 2011. Vol. 26, Iss. 4, Pgs. 276-282)

Turkey – Original Article (Free)

Comparative analsyis of using 112 ambulance services in Turkey and the province of Koyona (Eur J Gen Med):The purpose of this study is to evaluate and compare the use of 112 emergency ambulance services in Konya and Turkey within the years 2007, 2008, and 2009. (Aug 2011 Vol. 26, Iss. 4, pgs. 262-267)

Brazil – Review (Free)

Living and working conditions of the professionals of the a Mobile Emergency Service. (Rev Lat-Am Enfermagem):The assistance provided by the Mobile Emergency Service (SAMU) may result in changes in the health of the workers. This is a cross-sectional epidemiological study which aimed to evaluate the sociodemographic, health and lifestyle characteristics and the working conditions among professionals of the SAMU in Campinas, SP, Brazil. (Aug. 2011 Vol. 19, Iss. 4, pgs. 1018-24)

Iran – Original Research ($)

Pre-hospital trauma care resources for road traffic injuries in a middle-income country—A province based study on need and access in Iran (Injury):Access to pre-hospital trauma care can help minimize many of traffic related mortality and morbidity in low- and middle-income countries with high rate of traffic deaths such as Iran. The aim of this study was to assess if the distribution of pre-hospital trauma care facilities reflect the burden of road traffic injury and mortality in different provinces in Iran. (Aug 2011. Vol. 42, Iss. 9, Pgs. 879-884)

Pan-Asia – Original Research ($)

Pan-Asian Resuscitation Outcomes Study (PAROS): Rationale, Methodology, and Implementation (Int J Emerg Med):The Pan-Asian Resuscitation Outcomes Study (PAROS) network of hospitals was established in 2009 as an international, multicenter, prospective registry of OHCA across the Asia-Pacific region, to date representing a population base of 89 million in nine countries. The network’s goal is to provide benchmarking against established registries and to generate best practice protocols for Asian emergency medical services (EMS) systems, to impact community awareness of prehospital emergency care, and ultimately to improve OHCA survival. (Aug 2011. Vol. 18, Iss. 8, Pgs. 890-897)

Intl Committee Red Cross & Red Crescent – Report (Free)

Health Care in Danger: Making the case (ICRC): This publication draws attention to one of the most crucial yet overlooked humanitarian issues of today: violence against health care. Attacking health-care structures and personnel, and ambulances – as well as deliberately obstructing the efforts of the wounded to find help – are common features of conflicts throughout the world. (Aug 2011)

USA – NAEMT (Free)

NAEMT Position Paper on Lead Federal Agency for EMS (NAEMT):Outlines the necessity for the support of the Federal government in the EMS system. (Aug 2011)

African Union – Press Release (Free)

Africa Union Commission Organises Awareness Workshop on First Aid and Healthy Safety Tips The program was jointly organised by the African Union Commission (AUC) Medical Service Directorate (MSD) and the Tebita Ambulance Services in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia(Aug 2011, No. 83)

Pakistan – Provisional (Free)

Epidemiology of major incidents: an EMS study from Pakistan (Int J Emerg Med): All the calls received by an EMS Rescue 1122 were studied over a 6-month period. Calls that were defined as major incidents were identified, and further details were sought from the districts regarding these incidents. Retrospective data were collected from the submitted written reports. (July 2011. Vol. 4, Iss. 48)

Expert PanelSign Up (Free)

Building Capacity to Enhance Prehospital Care in Developing Countries (GHDonline.org): Emergency Medicine and trauma care experts will lead a discussion around designing, implementing and evaluating prehospital emergency medical care training courses. This panel will take place in the Global Surgery & Anesthesia community (13-17 June 2011)

Sign up free at GHDonline.org today!

https://www.ghdonline.org/accounts/signup/?signup_community=surgery

Global Injury – Lecture Transcript ($)

Strengthening Care for the Globally Injured (J Trauma): 2010 Fitts lecture by Dr. Charles N. Mock for the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma (AAST) (June 2011. Vol. 70, Iss. 6, Pages 1307-16)

Russian Federation -Current Opinion ($)

Trauma in the Russian Federation: then and now (J Trauma): Russia has made substantial, largely unrecognized contributions to the field of trauma. These include the early development of triage, improvement of blood transfusions and blood bank networks, and Mobile Emergency Medical Services. Despite these advances, injury fatality rates in Russia are alarmingly high (∼50% higher than other Eastern European countries). (April 2011. Vol. 70, Iss. 4, Pages 991-5)

Global Injury – Review (Free)

50-year Mortality Trends in Children and Young People: A Study of 50 Low-income, Middle-income, and High-income Countries (The Lancet): Global attention has focused on mortality in children younger than 5 years. We analysed global mortality data for people aged 1—24 years across a 50-year period. (April 2011. Vol. 377, Iss. 9772, Pages 1162-74)

Tanzania – News Article (Free)

Govt Supports Use of Tricycle Ambulances (The Citizen): Several local firms have teamed up with their foreign counterparts to import tricycle ambulances which can be used on most rural roads of Tanzania and decrease maternal mortality rates. (25 April 2011)

Libya – News Article (Free)

For Misrata Ambulances, Every Run is Life or Death (Reuters Africa): Driving an ambulance in the besieged Libyan city of Misrata is always a matter of life or death these days — not only for the injured passenger in the back, but also for the luckless driver in the front. (22 April 2011)

Turkey – News Article (Free)

Community Action Bring Floating Ambulance to Istanbul’s Princes’ Islands (Hurriyet Daily News and Economic Review): Istanbul’s Princes’ Islands will be furnished with a floating ambulance that will initially be deployed on Kınalıada by August. The money for the floating ambulance was collected as part of a campaign for 11-year-old Nilüfer Akbal, who was diagnosed with lymphoma. After she passed away, residents decided to use the money to transfer emergency patients to the mainland. (19 April 2011)

Jamaica – News Article (Free)

EMS – The New Frontier (Jamaica Observer): Public awareness piece on development of EMS in Jamaica. (16 April 2011)

Qatar – News Article (Free)

HMC’s Emergency Unit Plans 40 Mini Ambulance Stations (Gulf Times): As many as 40 mini ambulance stations are being planned across Qatar by the Emergency Medical Services within the next few years. (7 April 2011)

Spain – Original Article ($)

What is the Social Cost of Injured People in Traffic Collisions? An Assessment for Catalonia (Arch Child Dis): The goal of this study is to estimate the social cost of injured people in traffic collisions in Catalonia in the year 2007. (March 2011: Vol. 70, Iss. 3 Pgs 744-750)

Morocco – Original Article ($)

Emergency Trauma Care for Severe Injuries in a Moroccan Region: Conformance to French and World Health Organization Standards (J Healthc Qual): To assess actual structure and processes of emergency trauma care in a Moroccan region, and the process and structure of contacting emergency care and prehospital emergency care compared with the French 2002 standards. (Jan/Feb 2011: Vol. 33, Iss. 1, Pgs 30-38)

Motorcycle Transport – Original Article ($)

Riders for Health: The Difference Transport Makes to Child Mortality and Preventive Healthcare Efforts (Arch Child Dis): A reliable and cost-effective system for managing vehicles used in all types of healthcare delivery (February 2011: Vol. 96, Pgs 197-199)

Zimbabwe – News Article (Free)

Emergency Medical Response Makes Strides in Zim (Zimbabwe Independent): Zimbabwe, despite several difficult years in so far as the economic downturn is concerned, is fortunate to have one of the most efficient, best developed private emergency medical service systems on the continent outside South Africa. (3 February 2011)

China – Research (Free)

Comparing road traffic mortality rates from police-reported data and death registration data in China (Bulletin of World Health Organization): Compares death rates from road traffic injuries in China in 2002–2007 when derived from police-reported data versus death registration data. (January 2011: Vol. 89, No. 1, Pgs 41-45)

North America – Research ($)

Carbon Footprinting of North American Emergency Medical Services Systems (Prehospital Emergency Care): This study was undertaken to characterize the carbon emissions from a broad sample of North American emergency medical services (EMS) agencies, and to begin the process of establishing voluntary EMS-related emission targets. (January 2011: Vol. 15, No. 1, Pgs 23-29)

2010

Europe – Clinical Paper ($)

Comparing EMS Systems – European Emergency Data (EED) Project (Resuscitation): The aim of this prospective study was the comparison of four emergency medical service (EMS) systems—emergency physician (EP) and paramedic (PM) based—and the impact of advanced live support (ALS) on patients status in preclinical care. (Resuscitation Online – December 2010)

Japan – Review (Free)

Emergency Medicine in Japan (Keio J Med): There have been few reports published in English on emergency medicine (EM) in Japan; the main reason for this is that the concept of EM was different in Japan from that in western countries. Emergency medicine in Japan is currently based on a mixture of three models: the multispecialist-type, the ICU-type and the ER- type models. (December 2010;59(4):131-139)

South Africa – News Article (Free)

Blood & Trauma on the Cape Flats (Independent Online News): 12 hours on the ambulance in Cape Town, South Africa, with Metro EMS (20 Dec 2010)

Pakistan – News Article (Free)

Precautionary measures: Ambulances to register or be impounded (Express Tribune): No ambulance will be allowed to operate in Islamabad without a proper registration certificate – Dec. 11, 2010

Iraq – Original Research (Free)

Trained Lay First Responders Reduce Trauma Mortality: A Controlled Study of Rural Trauma in Iraq (Prehospital and Disaster Medicine): Trained layperson first responders improve trauma outcomes where prehospital evacuation times are long. This [article’s] finding demonstrates that simple interventions done early—by any type of trained care provider—are crucial for trauma survival. Where the prevalence of severe trauma is high, trauma first-responders should be an integral element of the trauma system. (Nov/Dec 2010: Vol. 25, No. 6, Pgs 487-496)

China – Research ($)

Prehospital Delay for Acute Coronary Syndrome in China (Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing): This article assesses the state-of-the-science regarding prehospital delay for acute coronary syndrome in China. (Nov/Dec 2010: Vol. 25, No. 6, Pgs 533-539)

Global – Cardiac Arrest Survival – Review Article ($)

Global Incidences of Out-Of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest and Survival Rates: Systematic review of 67 prospective studies (Resuscitation): The aim of this investigation was to estimate and contrast the global incidence and outcome of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) to provide a better understanding of the variability in risk and survival of OHCA. (November 2010: Vol. 81, Iss. 11, Pgs 1479-1487)

Global – Resuscitation Training – Review Article ($)

Resuscitation Training in Developing Countries: A Systematic Review (Resuscitation): The aim of this investigation is to evaluate whether the inclusion of any specific resuscitation training educational strategy in developing countries improves outcomes. (November 2010: Vol. 81, Iss. 11, Pgs 1462-1467)

WHO: South American Region – Research (Free)

Ratification of IATSIC/WHO’s Guidelines for Essential Trauma Care Assessment in the South American Region (World Journal of Surgery): The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the usefulness of the International Association for Trauma Surgery and Intensive Care (IATSIC)/World Health Organization (WHO)’s Guidelines for Essential Trauma Care (EsTC Guidelines) in providing an internationally applicable and standardized template to assess trauma care capabilities in the South American Region. (Nov. 2010: Vol. 34, No. 11, Pgs 2735 – 2744)

Jamaica – News Article (Free)

Government Buying 25 New Ambulances (Jamaica Observer): Denies Service is in ‘Shambles’ (30 Nov 2010)

Jamaica – News Article (Free)

Ambulance Service in Shambles (Jamaica Observer): Large number of units defective; health minister admits to shortage (28 Nov 2010)

Hungary – Review ($)

Prehospital Emergency Care in Hungary: What Can We Learn From the Past? (Journal of Emergency Medicine): An overview of the current trends in prehospital emergency medical care in Hungary on the 60th anniversary of the National Ambulance Service. (Oct. 2010: Vol. 39, No. 4, Pgs 512-518)

India – News Article (Free)

365 Fined in One Hour for Blocking Ambulances (Times of India): Delhi Police crackdown on flagrant violations for blocking emergency vehicles (27 Oct 2010)

South Korea – Short Report ($)

Helicopter emergency medical services: a report on the current status in a metropolitan area of South Korea (European Journal of Emergency Medicine): This report introduces and discusses the present state of the helicopter emergency medical services (HEMS) in the metropolitan area of South Korea – Published Online First: 28 Sep 2010

Australia – News Article (Free)

Ambulance Delays Threat to Lives (Herald Sun): Victorians seeking urgent ambulance assistance are routinely facing a life-threatening waits for help, documents reveal (25 Sept 2010)

Germany – Pilot Study (Free)

Pilot study on the microbial contamination of conventional vs. silver-impregnated uniforms worn by ambulance personnel during one week of emergency medical service(GMS Krankenhhyg Interdiszip): We compared the contamination rates of newly developed silver-hybrid clothing with that of standard textile clothing. (Published Online: Groß et al. September 21, 2010: 5(2))

Pakistan – Review ($)

Establishing a successful pre-hospital emergency service in a developing country: experience from Rescue 1122 service in Pakistan(Emergency Medicine Journal): The article describes the process of establishment of the service, the organisational structure, the scope of services and the role it is currently playing in the healthcare of the region it serves. (Published Online First: September 15, 2010)

Singapore – Research ($)

Reducing Ambulance Response Times Using Geospatial–Time Analysis of Ambulance Deployment (Academic Emergency Medicine): This study aimed to determine if a deployment strategy based on geospatial–time analysis is able to reduce ambulance response times for out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OOHCA) in an urban emergency medical services (EMS) system. (September 2010; Vol. 17, No. 9, Pgs 951–957)

USA – Research ($)

Quality of Care for Acute Myocardial Infarction in 58 U.S. Emergency Departments (Academic Emergency Medicine): The objectives of this study were to determine concordance of emergency department (ED) management of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) with guideline recommendations and to identify ED and patient characteristics predictive of higher guideline concordance. (September 2010; Vol. 17, No. 9, Pgs 940–950)

China – Short Report ($)

The UK medical response to the Sichuan earthquake (Emergency Medicine Journal): This study describes the team’s experience during the immediate aftermath of the earthquake and the following 18 months, during which there have been joint developments in emergency medicine, disaster planning/preparedness and the management of spinal cord injury. (Published Online First: September 3, 2010)

Madagascar – Original Article ($)

Taxi driver training in Madagascar: the first step in developing a functioning prehospital emergency care system (Emergency Medicine Journal): Aim: To describe the first training programme of its kind, run in Mahajanga, Madagascar. The faculty was invited by Mahajanga Medical School. (Published Online First: September 2, 2010)

South Africa – News Article (Free)

Johannesburg EMS to Assist Pakistani Flood Victims (Eyewitness News): Team to assist response and relief operations in areas affected by flooding (29 Aug 2010)

India – News Article (Free)

Provincial Government Enacts Ambulance & Responder Regulations (The Times of India): The province of Goa passes much needed legislation to regulate ambulance providers and personnel (9 Aug 2010)

China – Short Report ($)

Response time of the Beijing 120 emergency medical service (Emergency Medicine Journal): Background: To assess the response time and the details of the operating procedure of the Beijing 120 Emergency Medical Service (EMS). Methods: Between June and December 2005, 51,918 EMS cases recorded in the Dispatch Center of the Beijing Emergency Medical Center were analysed. (Published Online First: August 2, 2010)

Haiti – News Article (Free)

Jan. 2010 Earthquake: “View From the Ground” (EMSWorld): NYC Medics witnessed the aftermath of the Haitian earthquake first hand. Here’s what others hoping to help after international disasters should know – April, 2010

India – Original Research (Free)

Where There Are No Emergency Medical Services—Prehospital Care for the Injured in Mumbai, India (Prehospital & Disaster Medicine): In a populous city like Mumbai, which lacks an organized pre- hospital emergency medical services (EMS) system, there exists an informal network through which victims arrive at the trauma center. This baseline study describes the prehospital care and transportation that currently is available in Mumbai. (March-April 2010: Vol. 25, No. 2, Pgs 145-151)

Colombia – Research ($)

Trauma Care Training for National Police Nurses in Colombia (Prehospital Emergency Care): In response to a requirement for advanced trauma care nurses to provide combat tactical medical support, the antinarcotics arm of the Colombian National Police (CNP) requested the Colombian National Prehospital Care Association to develop a Combat Tactical Medicine Course (MEDTAC course). Objective:To evaluate the effectiveness of this course in imparting knowledge and skills to the students. (January-March 2010: Vol. 14, No. 1, Pgs 124-130)

Ireland – News Article (Free)

New Advanced Paramedics Deployed – West Cork Ireland (Pre-Hospital Care World): Additional advanced care paramedics are being deployed in rapid response vehicles to the scene of major accidents. Their aim is to support the local ambulance service and paramedics and provide advance life support skills (16 Jan 2010)

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